Between-tree crossing effect
That it ranging from-tree crossing perception is actually consistent between kinds in spite of the large interspecific difference in dispersal possible. For both types, version in the good fresh fruit lay certainly maternal woods try minimum for the between-tree crosses, suggesting a good common bad interfertility ranging from trees occurring when you look at the independent forest supplies.
Mechanisms underlying outbreeding depression may be of a genetic or an ecological nature (Price and Waser, 1979; Shields, 1982). Outbreeding depression involving between-population crosses is most often ascribed to the genetic mechanism involving disruption of coadapted gene complexes (Templeton, 1986). According to this model, intrinsic coadaptation involving relatively few loci develops through restricted gene flow among populations and genetic drift within populations (Templeton, 1981; Schierup and Christiansen, 1996). Crossing disparate genomes results in outbreeding depression through the disruption of coadaptation between homologous chromosomes in the F1 generation and between coadapted portions of individual chromosomes in F2 progeny. The outbreeding depression observed in this study, which was restricted to between-forest crosses over 12- and 35-km distances, may be explained in part by disruption of intrinsic coadaptation. The observation of hybrid vigor in seedlings of Sh. cordifolia is also consistent with this model (Templeton, 1986; see below).
In contrast, the ecological mechanism for outbreeding depression involves reduced fitness of wide outcrosses due to adaptation to local biotic and abiotic conditions, such that wide outcrossing yields F1 progeny with alleles maladapted to either of the parental environments (Endler, 1977). Although selection-driven divergence is typically associated with intrapopulation outbreeding depression (e.g., Waser and Price, 1989), selection-driven divergence between populations seems a plausible contributor to the reduced interfertility between populations observed in this study. Through direct selection on fitness traits, habitat heterogeneity will promote genetic differentiation within and among plant populations (Jain and Bradshaw, 1966; Linhart and Grant, 1996). The considerable environmental heterogeneity of southwest Sri Lanka is likely sufficient to cause genetic differentiation of tree populations over a scale of tens of kilometers. The ridge and valley system of southwest Sri Lanka comprises elevations ranging from 300 m to >1000 m. , 1998).
The apparent outbreeding anxiety present in fruits place and you will collective fitness having ranging from-tree crosses both in kinds suggests some degree out-of genetic separation among forest communities consuming the newest independent tree reserves out-of Sri Lanka’s wet zone. That it result is somewhat alarming given the highest stature of the varieties in addition to small neighborhood in it, plus it shows that requirements advantageous getting speciation during the warm trees can get develop over a level from just several so you can tens off kilometers. The fresh new geographical heterogeneity of southwestern Sri Lanka, however, are off a thin measure than just regarding the majority regarding tropical forested landscapes (Ashton and you may Gunatilleke, 1987). It could be desirable to see whether bad get across-fertility anywhere between forests try universal having forest kinds about damp zone. Regrettably, plans to repeat this investigation from inside the 1998, and to become almost every other species of Syzygium and you may Shorea, was basically defeated on account of a standard shortage of flowering regarding part one to 12 months. Away from a preservation angle, observation off actually slight reproductive isolation ranging from forest reserves shows that also in which forest types was mutual among supplies, for every tree signifies one hereditary money well worth maintenance.
Across elevations, variation in temperature, cloudiness, and rainfall (<2500–5000 cm) occurs (Gunatilleke et al
Outbreeding anxiety wasn’t thought of in the crosses over what’s presumably the conventional list of pollen flow having possibly types. The lack of proof outbreeding despair within continuing-forest populations in this research are consistent with the literary works from inside the and that examples of ranging from-people outbreeding despair within the flowers much outnumber that from contained in this-people outbreeding depression. Given the latest nature out of deforestation northern out of Sinharaja, yet not, delineation of S. rubicundum to your separate populations in the Sinharaja and you will Walankanda Reserves could possibly get perhaps not correctly echo the fresh recent demographic reputation for that it kinds. Walankanda and Sinharaja Supplies have been element of one to carried on tree until merely 30–40 yr in the past (P. S. Ashton, personal correspondence, Harvard School). This is exactly probably less than the brand new generation going back to this type of trees and you may indicates the opportunity of recent hereditary contacts between the two communities. Since S. rubicundum may be limited to middle-slope parts, not, it’s likely that so it types was not present in abundance from the valley between Sinharaja and Walankanda Supplies before the cleaning out-of tree where town (P. S. Ashton, personal communications, Harvard University). Regardless, the 2 forest is actually separated currently by good deforested remove just cuatro km greater. Gene disperse between forest populations consuming these types of forests since the breakup is hence about plausible (elizabeth.grams., Light, Powell, and you will Boshier, 1998). Therefore, observance from outbreeding depression into the crosses ranging from tree populations consuming Sinharaja and Walankanda Reserves are unforeseen, plus it suggests that genetic divergence off tree populations may appear more short distances in persisted habitat.